Academic Positions

  • 2007


    Boğaziçi University, Department of Management

  • 2007 2000

    Associate Professor

    Boğaziçi University, Department of Management

  • 2000 1997

    Assistant Professor

    Boğaziçi University, Department of Management

  • 1996 1995

    Research Fellow

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Department of Management

  • 1995 1986

    Research and Teaching Assistant

    Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, Department of Industrial Engineering

  • 1986 1985

    Research Assistant

    Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, System Sciences Research Center

Education & Training

  • Ph.D. 1994

    Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering

    M.E.T.U., Ankara, Turkey

    Thesis: Common Cycle Multi-Stage Economic Lot Scheduling Problem

  • M.S.1988

    M.S. in Industrial Engineering

    M.E.T.U., Ankara, Turkey

    Thesis: Jobshop Scheduling Under Nonrenewable Resource Constraint

  • B.Sc.1985

    Bachelor of Arts in Industrial Engineering

    M.E.T.U., Ankara, Turkey

Honors, Awards and Grants

  • 2000
    Boğaziçi University Outstanding Young Researcher Award

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Predictors of attitudinal and behavioral outcomes in mobile advertising: A field experiment

Toker, A., Varnali, K., Yilmaz, C.
Journal ArticlesElectronic Commerce Research and Applications 11(6):570–581, November 2012,


The study examines consumer responses to SMS-based mobile advertising campaigns using a field experiment with actual behavioral responses. Specifically, the effects of message characteristics (i.e., incentives and prior permission) and individual differences of message recipients (i.e., content involvement, prior experience with the mobile medium, and medium-fit perceptions) on the attitudinal and behavioral outcomes of such campaigns are investigated. Perceived intrusiveness of the message and attitude toward the campaign are conceptualized as key attitudinal reactions triggered by a mobile advertising message, which in turn influence the behavioral responses generated by the campaign. Findings suggest that, in comparison to permission and incentive, individual differences are stronger determinants of responses to mobile advertising campaigns. Additionally, intriguing insights with respect to the effectiveness of different types of incentives are provided.

The effect of customer relationship management adoption in business-to-business markets

Toker, A., Ata, Z.
Journal Articles Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 27(6), July 2012


Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of customer relationship management (CRM) practices on customer satisfaction and firm performance in business‐to‐business (B2B) markets. Design/methodology/approach – A model is developed and empirically tested through survey data obtained from 113 Turkish B2B companies. Findings – The results indicate that CRM adoption has a significant positive effect on both customer satisfaction and organizational performance in B2B settings. CRM adoption is also found to affect organizational marketing performance significantly, but not financial performance. Additionally, the results reveal that enhanced customer satisfaction leads to better organizational performance in the B2B organization. Environmental dynamism and competition was found to have a negative moderating effect on the relationship between customer satisfaction and organizational performance. Originality/value – The paper contributes to existing literature by incorporating customer‐facing CRM processes as a construct in the proposed model. The conclusions drawn have implications for both CRM and B2B research literature.

Extending the Technology Acceptance Model with perceived community characteristics

Toker, A., Koch, Stefan., Brulez, Philip
Journal ArticlesInformation Research 16(2), June 2011


Introduction. In information systems literature, the Technology Acceptance Model is one of the most widely used approaches for modelling adoption behaviour, including e-commerce applications. In this paper, we propose to extend this model by adding a relationship between technology acceptance and the perceived presence of a community and its characteristics. Method. We employ an empirical study based on a questionnaire distributed after using a Web-based system. We use three groups, including one control group where community features are disabled using technology, but keeping the same environment and situation otherwise. Analysis. We first employ a factor analysis, then correlation analysis and structural equation modelling. In addition, we do statistical tests comparing the three groups. Results. The proposed model is partially supported by the empirical results in which we find that there is a link from community characteristics to perceived usefulness as well as to purchasing intention. Conclusions. Acceptance and adoption behaviour of users is not only shaped by the perceived usefulness and ease of use, but also by perceived community characteristics. It turns out that the perceived community size alone does not account for a major impact, but perceived community structure, including the presence of users showing lead-user characteristics, has an important role.

Mobile marketing at Turkcell: Turkey's leading mobile operator

Toker, A., Varnali, K., Yilmaz, C.
Journal Articles Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, 1, 1, 1-9, January 2011


Subject area – Mobile marketing. Study level/applicability – Undergraduate and Graduate levels. Case overview – Driven by the ongoing evolution in mobile technologies and the increasing penetration of smart phones, the use of the mobile medium for marketing purposes is becoming more and more popular across industries. This case study presents an overview of the mobile marketing ecosystem embedded in the story of the transition of Turkcell from a traditional carrier into a leading mobile services provider. The aim is to familiarize the reader with the benefits and challenges of using the mobile medium for marketing communications and provide lessons from Turkcell experience for success in mobile marketing. Expected learning outcomes – Develop a comprehensive understanding of the concept of “mobile marketing” and the current state of mobile technologies; develop a general knowledge of various types of mobile marketing applications; have a general knowledge and understanding of the consumer-centric value propositions of mobile marketing; gain a perspective on the nature and dynamics of mobile business environment and have the chance to examine real-market campaigns that leverage unique properties of the mobile medium. Supplementary materials – Teaching notes.

Mobile marketing research: The-state-of-the-art

Toker, A., Varnali, K.
Journal Articles International Journal of Information Management 30(2):144-151, April 2010,


Rapid proliferation in the business potential of mobile marketing attracts researchers from various fields to contribute to the growing body of knowledge on the phenomena. Although the literature on mobile marketing is accumulating, the stream of research is still in the development stage, hence is highly inconsistent and fragmented. This paper aims to organize and classify the literature on mobile marketing and assess the-state-of-the-art in order to facilitate future research. The review covers 255 peer-reviewed journal articles from 82 journals published between 2000 and 2008. The resulting framework summarizes the progress in mobile marketing research and provides future research directions.

Do popular management techniques improve performance?: Evidence from large businesses in Turkey

Toker, A., İseri-Say, A.
Journal Articles Journal of Management Development 27(7):660-677, July 2008,


Purpose – The aim of this paper is to determine whether the adoption of management techniques influences organizational performance and to determine the antecedents of adoption. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a survey method to collect data from 106 large businesses in multiple industries. Findings – The findings suggest that the adoption of management techniques influences organizational performance, especially when supported by clear vision and mission statements. Organizational and environmental characteristics act as antecedents for adoption. Research limitations/implications – Further research should focus on efforts for explaining the complex link between adoption and performance. Originality/value – The paper contributes to knowledge on adoption of management ideas in less developed contexts.

Crafting strategy in not‐for‐profit organisations: the experience of an alumni organisation, BÜMED

Toker, A., Öz, Ö.
Journal Articles International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 13(2):167 - 175, May 2008,


This paper describes and discusses the specificities of crafting strategy in not-for-profit organisations deriving from the experience of an alumni organisation in Turkey, BÜMED (Bogazici Universitesi Mezunlar Dernegi: Bogazici University Alumni Association). It has been underlined in the paper that crafting successful strategies in not-for-profit organisations has two essential dimensions. The first one is related to ‘operational effectiveness’; that is, perfecting how the operations are performed and managed in the organisation. In its pursuit of ensuring quality and excellence in management, BÜMED has applied the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model and it seems to have worked for BÜMED, despite some aberrations. The second dimension, on the other hand, is related to the very concept of strategy itself, whose main emphasis is on priorities and trade-offs. What is underlined in BÜMED's experience regarding this dimension is the idea that although the principles of excellence in management, if applied properly and internalised by the members of the organisation, carry a potential to have spill-over effects for successful strategising, in the absence of right strategies, good management in and of itself is unlikely to suffice for the desired outcome, which ultimately means the creation of value for the society in the case of not-for-profit organisations.

Membership Relationship Management in Nonprofit Organizations: The Case of an Alumni Organization

Toker, A., Kankotan, E.
Journal Articles January 2008,


A cluster-based decision support system for estimating earthquake damage and casualties

Aleskerov, F., İşeri-Say, A., Toker, A. , Akın, L. and Altay, G.
Journal Articles Disasters 29(3):255-76, October 2005,


This paper describes a Decision Support System for Disaster Management (DSS-DM) to aid operational and strategic planning and policy-making for disaster mitigation and preparedness in a less-developed infrastructural context. Such contexts require a more flexible and robust system for fast prediction of damage and losses. The proposed system is specifically designed for earthquake scenarios, estimating the extent of human losses and injuries, as well as the need for temporary shelters. The DSS-DM uses a scenario approach to calculate the aforementioned parameters at the district and sub-district level at different earthquake intensities. The following system modules have been created: clusters (buildings) with respect to use; buildings with respect to construction typology; and estimations of damage to clusters, human losses and injuries, and the need for shelters. The paper not only examines the components of the DSS-DM, but also looks at its application in Besiktas Municipality in the city of Istanbul, Turkey.

Levels of Awareness and Usage of Quality Tools/Concepts in Developing Nations: Malaysia and Turkey

Meek G.E., Özgür, C., Toker, A. , Teong, L.K.
Journal Articles Bogazici Journal Vol. 17, No. 2, 95-107, June 2003,


A Comparison of Levels of Awareness and Usage of Quality Tools/Concepts in Developing Nations: Malaysia and Turkey

Meek G.E., Özgür, C., Toker, A. , Teong, L.K.
Conference Papers Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Meeting of the Asia-Pacific Decision Sciences Institute, July 2002


The Impact of ISO Certification on the Level of Awareness and Usage of Quality Tools and Concepts: A Survey of Turkish Manufacturing Companies

Özgür, C., Meek G.E., Toker, A.
Journal ArticlesQuality Management Journal Vol. 9, No. 2, 57-69, May 2002


Makespan Minimization in the Two-Machine Flowshop Batch Scheduling Problem

Cheng, T.C.E., Lin, B.M.T., Toker, A.
Journal Articles Naval Research Logistics 47(2):128 - 140, March 2000


In this paper we consider a practical scheduling problem commonly arising from batch production in a flexible manufacturing environment. Different part-types are to be produced in a flexible manufacturing cell organized into a two-stage production line. The jobs are processed in batches on the first machine, and the completion time of a job is defined as the completion time of the batch containing it. When processing of all jobs in a batch is completed on the first machine, the whole batch of jobs is transferred intact to the second machine. A constant setup time is incurred whenever a batch is formed on any machine. The tradeoff between the setup times and batch processing times gives rise to the batch composition decision. The problem is to find the optimal batch composition and the optimal schedule of the batches so that the makespan is minimized. The problem is shown to be strongly NP-hard. We identify some special cases by introducing their corresponding solution methods. Heuristic algorithms are also proposed to derive approximate solutions. We conduct computational experiments to study the effectiveness of the proposed heuristics.

Job Shop Scheduling under a NonRenewable Resource Constraint

Toker, A. , Kondakci, S., Erkip, N.
Journal Articles Journal of the Operational Research Society 45(8):942-947, August 1994


In this paper we consider the job shop scheduling problem under a discrete non-renewable resource constraint. We assume that jobs have arbitrary processing times and resource requirements and there is a unit supply of the resource at each time period. We develop an approximation algorithm for this problem and empirically test its effectiveness in finding the minimum makespan schedules.

Scheduling under a Nonrenewable Resource Constraint

Toker, A. , Kondakci, S., Erkip, N.
Journal Articles Journal of the Operational Research Society 42(9):811-814, September 1991


A Framework for E-Potential Assessment in Online Markets

Toker, A. , Varnali, K.
Journal Articles Journal of Internet Business, 6, 81-110


A particular product's suitability for online selling (e-potential) is dependent on the customers' perceptions of several product-and-process related attributes. The aim of this research is to develop a framework to assess e-potentials of various product categories in driving online shopping preferences. The proposed model adopts the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to determine relative weights of evaluative criteria, and score different product categories according to their e-potentials. Criteria and sub-criteria used in the AHP scheme are determined by a rigorous consumer research combining merits of both qualitative and quantitative methods. This study offers a valuable tool for managers to assess their products' potential to be sold online, and applies the tool in the context of the Turkish market. Factors unique to the local market are identified and integrated into the current framework. Although the results of the present research are target market specific, the proposed methodology for the e-potential assessment is highly generalizable. Implications for researchers and marketing managers are discussed.

From Place Attachment to Place Engagement

Toker, A., Yavuz, R.
Proceedings1st Consumer Research Summit: Place and Marketing in a Dynamic World, Bangor University, London, UK, April 22, 2016

Mobile Marketing: Fundamentals and Strategy

Toker, A., Varnali, K., Yilmaz, C.
Book McGraw Hill New York | 2010 |

Self-Disclosure on Social Networking Sites

Toker, A., Varnali, K.
Journal Articles Social Behavior and Personality (SSCI), 43, 1, 1-14

Social Media Adoption: A Process-Based Approach

Toker, A., Seraj, M., Kuscu, A., Bisson, C.
Journal Articles Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce 26(4), September, 2016

This research conceptualizes and measures Social Media Adoption (SMA) of companies with a process-based approach and explains its antecedents of micro and macro environment, size, and ownership, as well as its consequence of intention to increase resources dedicated to Social Media (SM). Based on data from 310 Turkish Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), the study first develops a conceptual framework on the pillars of internal and external stakeholder focus as well as relationship and information oriented implementation. Based on these two dimensions, it discusses the novel concepts of Social Customer Relations, Social Stakeholder Communication, Social Intelligence, and Social Responsiveness related to SMA. The study further indicates that ownership type and micro environment play a role in SMA and that path dependence exists in the interplay of current adoption and future intentions.

Location sharing on social networks: Implications for marketing

Toker, A., Yavuz, R.
Journal Article Marketing Intelligence & Planning 32(5):567-585, July 2014


Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the emerging motives behind check-in and location sharing of consumers on social network sites (SNSs). A theoretical model for the emergent motives of check-in behavior is proposed, and implications of location sharing for consumer behavior and marketing are discussed. Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected from a convenience sample of 32 respondents, comprising a representative sample of location-based SNS users. In total, 217 unique check-ins, locations, and motives were analyzed, and seven emergent motives were identified through content analysis. Findings - This paper identified the key motives behind check-in behavior, including social-enhancement value, informational and social motivation, entertainment value, gameful experiences, utilitarian motivation, and belongingness. Social-enhancement value is the most frequently cited motive, driven mainly by the selective self-presentation efforts of respondents. Gameful experiences are a newly emerging motive contributing to the "uses and gratifications theory" (UGT). Research limitations/implications - The proposed model has not yet been formally verified in a quantitative study. A further study with a larger sample size is planned for future work for the verification and generalization of the findings. Practical implications - Practitioner approaches on check-in behavior are mainly focussed on consumers giving and receiving recommendations of locations and consumers responding to the promotional efforts of marketers. However, this study suggests consumers have more creative and different motives, such as dating through location-based SNSs or gameful experiences. Originality/value - Research into location-based SNSs is a relatively new area in marketing. This study and proposed model are among the first to explain check-in behavior. Additionally, gameful experiences contribute to UGT, a construct that has not been previously identified